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How can I remove (uninstall) programs or applications from my Mac?

Article ID: 173
Last updated: 14 May, 2012

Uninstalling Applications in Mac OS X

Quick Instructions

  • Drag the installed program from the Applications folder to the Trash.
  • Go to your Home folder > Library > Application Support. Look for folders named after the application. Drag them to the trash.
  • Go to your Home folder > Library > Preferences. Look for files named after the application. Drag them to the trash.
  • Go to your hard drive > Library > Preferences. Look for files named after the application. Drag them to the trash.

Users can also use Spotlight to search for other support files. Type in the name of the application to search.

Detailed Instructions

In Microsoft Windows, programs are installed and uninstalled through the Add and Remove Programs Control Panel. However, uninstalling applications in Mac OS X is very different. Instead, users must drag application bundles to the Trash icon in the task bar. Unfortunately, sometimes there is more to uninstalling than the drag-and-drop process.

To determine if an icon includes an application bundle, press the control key at the same time you click on the application icon. IF YOU SEE "SHOW PACKAGE CONTENTS," then the application is a bundle. The package contains most of the files needed to run the application. So to uninstall these applications, you only have to drag them to the Trash.

But these applications will still leave behind files not stored in application bundles, such as preferences and any required application support files. Preference files can be safely deleted through the user Library Preference folder, but are usually very small files that take up negligible disk space. If you don't delete these files and reinstall the program later, keeping the preference file means you will still have your original settings.

On the other hand, application support files can take up quite a bit of memory, depending on the application installed. Mail and media programs can take up quite a bit of room. These files are located in the Application Support folder, User Library Application Support.

Before deleting any files, the program should not be running. Remove its icon from the dock to be sure. If you get a puff of smoke, it is not running. When you delete an icon from the dock, you do not do anything to the original program. You are just deleting a shortcut to the program.

If you installed an application through an installer (and not a drag-and-drop of file to the Applications folder), you may be able to uninstall using the installer program. This option sometimes appears as a drop-down menu.

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For more information or to get assistance,  Contact the helpdesk at 518-244-4777 or by emailing helpdesk@sage.edu.

Article submitted by Jon Brennan

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An application, or application program, is a software program that runs on your computer. Web browsers, e-mail programs, word processors, games, and utilities are all applications. The word \"application\" is used because each program has a specific application for the user. For example, a word processor can help a student create a research paper, while a video game can prevent that same student from getting the paper done.

In contrast, system software consists of programs that run in the background, enabling applications to run. These programs include assemblers, compilers, file management tools, and the operating system itself. Applications are said to run on top of the system software, since the system software is made of of \"low-level\" programs. While system software is automatically installed with the operating system, you can choose which applications you want to install and run on your computer.

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As the name implies, multimedia is the integration of multiple forms of media. This includes text, graphics, audio, video, etc. For example, a presentation involving audio and video clips would be considered a \"multimedia presentation.\" Educational software that involves animations, sound, and text is called \"multimedia software.\" CDs and DVDs are often considered to be \"multimedia formats\" since they can store a lot of data and most forms of multimedia require a lot of disk space.

Due to the advancements in computer speeds and storage space, multimedia is commonplace today. Therefore, the term doesn\'t produce the same excitement is once did. This also means it is not as overused as it was back in the late \'90s. Thank goodness.

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The hard drive stores all the computer\'s information and retains the information when the computer is turned off. A fast hard drive is needed to supply the CPU with data as fast as it needs it. Hard drive sizes are typically measured in GigaBytes. The larger the number, the more applications and games you can have installed.

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Microsoft Windows XP was introduced in 2001 and is the most significant upgrade to the Windows operating system since Windows 95. The previous version of Windows, called Windows Me (or Millennium Edition) still had the look and feel of Windows 95 and was known to have stability issues and incompatibilities with certain hardware.

Windows XP addressed many issues of its predecessor and added a number of other improvements as well. It is a stable operating system since it is built on the Windows 2000 kernel, which is known for its reliability. XP also has a new, more modern look, and an interface that is more easy to navigate than previous versions of Windows. While not written from the ground up, like Mac OS X, Windows XP is a substantial system update. The letters \"XP\" stand for \"eXPerience,\" meaning the operating system is meant to be a new type of user experience.

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A batch file is a type of script that contains a list of commands. These commands are executed in sequence and can be used to automate processes. For example, some programs may include a batch file that executes a number of commands as the program starts up. A user can also create a custom batch file to automate tedious processes such as copying multiple directories or renaming several files at once.

Batch files are run by the COMMAND.COM program, which is part of DOS and Windows. Therefore, batch files can only be run within the Windows operating system. Macintosh and Unix have other scripting tools, such as AppleScript and Unix shell commands, that can be used for similar tasks. Because batch files contain executable commands, it is important not to open unknown batch files on your hard disk or in e-mail attachments.

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The hard drive is what stores all your data. It houses the hard disk, where all your files and folders are physically located. A typical hard drive is only slightly larger than your hand, yet can hold over 100 GB of data. The data is stored on a stack of disks that are mounted inside a solid encasement. These disks spin extremely fast (typically at either 5400 or 7200 RPM) so that data can be accessed immediately from anywhere on the drive. The data is stored on the hard drive magnetically, so it stays on the drive even after the power supply is turned off.

The term \"hard drive\" is actually short for \"hard disk drive.\" The term \"hard disk\" refers to the actual disks inside the drive. However, all three of these terms are usually seen as referring to the same thing -- the place where your data is stored. Since I use the term \"hard drive\" most often, that is the correct one to use.

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A mainframe is an ultra high-performance computer made for high-volume, processor-intensive computing. They are typically used by large businesses and for scientific purposes. You probably won\'t find a mainframe in any household. In the hierarchy of computers, mainframes are right below supercomputers, the most powerful computers in the world. (Which is why they are aptly named \"supercomputers.\") Yet a mainframe can usually execute many programs simultaneously at a high speed, whereas supercomputers are designed for a single process. Currently, the largest manufacturers of mainframes are IBM and Unisys.

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This little chip is the heart of a computer. Also referred to as the \"microprocessor,\" the processor does all the computations such as adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing. In PCs, the most popular microprocessor used is the Intel Pentium chip, whereas Macintosh computers use the PowerPC chip (developed by Motorola, IBM, and Apple).

The speed of a computer\'s processor is measured in megahertz, or cycles per second. But higher megahertz doesn\'t always mean better performance. Though a 600-MHz chip has a clock speed that is twice as fast as a 300-Mhz chip, it doesn\'t mean that the computer with the 600-Mhz chip will run twice as fast. This is because the speed of a computer is also influenced by other factors, such as the efficiency of the processor, the bus architecture, the amount of memory available, and the software that is running on the computer. Some processors can complete more operations per clock cycle than other processors, making them more efficient than other processors with higher clock speeds. This is why the PowerPC chip is typically faster than Pentium chips at that are clocked at higher megahertz.

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This is a multimedia technology developed by our friends at Apple Computer. It is a popular format for creating and storing sound, graphics, and movie (.mov) files. Though it is an Apple technology, QuickTime software is available for both the Mac and the PC.

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A metafile can refer to two different types of computer files. The first is a file that describes the contents of other files. This type of metafile may contain metadata, which defines a group other files and gives a summary of what data they contain.

The second type of metafile is most often used in computer graphics. These files define objects and images using a list of coordinates. They are typically used for vector images, such as Adobe Illustrator, CorelDRAW, and EPS files, but can include raster images as well.

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The task bar was introduced with Windows 95 and has been part of every version of Windows since then. It is the bar that spans the bottom of the screen and contains the Start button on the left side and the systray on the right. The task bar also includes the current time on the far right side and can hold shortcuts to programs directly to the right of the Start button.

Most of the task bar, however, contains shortcuts to open windows. Whenever you open a program or window, it shows up in the task bar. So if you have Internet Explorer and Microsoft Word open, there will be at least two items in the middle area of the task bar. Since each window gets its own location in the task bar, if there are two Microsoft Word documents open and three Internet Explorer windows open, there will be a total of five items in the task bar. When you click on a window title in the task bar, that window will become active and show up in front of other open windows. You can also cycle through the task bar items by holding the Alt key and pressing Tab a few times.

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Mac OS X, pronounced \"Mac Oh-Es Ten,\" is the current version of the operating system used on Apple Macintosh computers. If you happen to pronounce it \"Mac OS X,\" computer nerds and dedicated Mac users will be quick to correct you. While the name may be a bit confusing, Mac OS X is an advanced, user-friendly operating system.

Previous versions of the Mac OS, were based on the original Macintosh operating system, released in 1984. In the late 1990\'s, many computer users felt Windows had \"caught up\" to the Mac OS and Apple\'s operating system began to appear a bit dated. So Apple completely revamped the Mac OS and created a new operating system from the ground up.

While much of the code used to build Mac OS X was written from scratch, a lot was taken from the NEXTSTEP operating system. NEXTSTEP was a Unix-based system that ran on NeXT computers, which are no longer in production. NeXT was acquired by Apple in 1997 and Steve Jobs was hired as interim CEO. Apple developers took the Unix-based code from NEXTSTEP and combined it with the graphical user interface (GUI) of Mac OS 9. The result was a stable, high-performance operating system that had the stability of Unix and the intuitive interface of the Macintosh. Mac OS X 10.0 was released in 2001.

Since the initial release, Apple has released several major updates to Mac OS X, at a pace of roughly one update a year. The list of OS X versions include 10.0 Cheetah, 10.1 Puma, 10.2 Jaguar, 10.3 Panther, and 10.4 Tiger. Mac OS X 10.5 is expected to be called Leopard.

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A filename is a text string that identifies a file. Every file stored on a computer\'s hard disk has a filename that helps identify the file within a given folder. Therefore, each file within a specific folder must have a different filename, while files in different folders can have the same name.

Filenames may contain letters, numbers, and other characters. Depending on the operating system, certain characters cannot be used since they conflict with operators or other syntax used by the operating system. Different operating systems also have different limits for the number of characters a filename can have. While older operating systems limited filenames to only 8 or 16 characters, newer OS\'s allow filenames to be as long as 256 characters. Of course, for most practical purposes, 16 characters is usually enough.

Filenames also usually include a file extension, which identifies the type of file. The file extension is also called the \"filename suffix\" since it is appended to the filename, following a dot or period. For example, a Microsoft Word document may be named \"document1.doc.\" While technically the filename in the preceding example is \"document1\" and \"doc\" is the extension, it is also acceptable to refer to \"document1.doc\" as the filename. In some cases, the filename may even refer to the file\'s directory location, i.e. (\"\\My Documents\\School Papers\\document1.doc\").

You can name a file by clicking on the file\'s icon or filename, waiting for a second, then clicking on the filename again. As long as the file is not locked, the filename will become highlighted, and you can type a new name for the file. You can also name a file the first time you save it from a program or by selecting \"Save As...\" from the program\'s File menu.

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These are the little text-based faces and objects that you often see in e-mail and online chat. They help give the reader a sense of the writer\'s feelings behind the text. For example, the classic =) face shows that the writer is happy about something or that his message in good humor. The =P face is used to show frustration or to say \"Whatever...\" Emoticons can also be used to create real-world objects. For example, a @-->-->--- is supposed to be a long-stemmed rose, which you can use to show affection. Though I think most women would prefer a real long-stemmed rose if they had a choice.

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Stands for \"Digital Versatile Disc Random Access Memory.\" DVD-RAMs are writable DVDs. The discs can also be erased and rewritten like the DVD-RW and DVD+RW formats. However, DVD-RAM discs work only when placed in an enclosing cartridge, meaning they won\'t fit in most standard DVD players or DVD-ROM drives. The first DVD-RAM media could hold 2.6GB on a single-sided disc, but newer double-sided discs can store up to 9.4GB.

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Most software programs require that you first install them on your computer before using them. For example, if you buy Microsoft Office, you need to install it on your computer before you can run any of the included programs such as Word or Excel. You can install software from a CD or DVD, an external hard drive, or from a networked computer. You can also install a program or software update from a file downloaded from the Internet.

Installing a software program writes the necessary data for running the program on your hard drive. Often the installer program will decompress the data included with the installer immediately before writing the information to your hard drive. Software updates, which are typically downloaded from the Internet, work the same way. When you run the update, the installer file decompresses the data and then updates the correct program or operating system.

Installing software is usually a simple process. It involves double-clicking an installer icon and then clicking \"I Agree\" when the license agreement pops up. You may have to choose what directory on your hard disk you would like to install the software in, but often the installer will even choose that for you. Some software can be installed by simply dragging a folder or application program onto your hard drive. Either way, installing software is a rather simple process and should not be intimidating. If you can cook you dinner in the microwave, you can install your own software.

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Microsoft Windows is the most popular operating system for personal computers. There are several versions of the Windows operating system, including Windows XP (for home users) and Windows 2000 (for professional users). Earlier versions of Windows include Windows 3.1, 95, 98, ME, and NT. All Windows platforms use a graphical user interface (GUI), like the Mac OS, and also offer a command-line interface for typing text commands.

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A process is a program that is running on your computer. This can be anything from a small background task, such as a spell-checker or system events handler to a full-blown application like Internet Explorer or Microsoft Word. All processes are composed of one or more threads.

Since most operating systems have many background tasks running, your computer is likely to have many more processes running than actual programs. For example, you may only have three programs running, but there may be twenty active processes. You can view active processes in Windows by opening the Task Manager (press Ctrl-Alt-Delete and click Task Manager). On a Mac, you can see active processes by opening Activity Monitor (in the Applications->Utilities folder).

The term \"process\" can also be used as a verb, which means to perform a series of operations on a set of data. For example, your computer\'s CPU processes information sent to it by various programs.

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Just like real world folders, folders on your hard drive store files. These files can be documents, programs, scripts, libraries, and any other kind of computer file you can think of. Folders can also store other folders, which may store more files or other folders, and so on.

Folders allow people to organize their files in a way that makes sense to them. For example, a college student might store all her photos in a folder named \"Pictures,\" all her papers in a folder named \"School Work,\" and all her financial information (including the tens of thousands of dollars in student loans) in a folder named \"Finances.\" All these folders might reside within a folder called \"My Documents.\"

The computer\'s operating system also uses folders to store data such as system files, library files, and user preferences. Often, the folders that the system uses are locked, meaning users cannot alter their contents.

While folders can store several gigabytes of data, folders themselves hardly take up any space on the hard drive. This is because the folders are really just pointers to files and other folders, telling the computer where they are located. The compilation of folders on your hard drive make up the \"directory structure,\" or overall organization of your hard drive. For this reason, folders are also referred to as \"directories.\" Thank goodness for folders, because without them our hard drives would be pretty cluttered!

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In order for storage media, such as a hard drive, to be recognized by your computer, it needs to be formatted. Formatting a disk involves testing the disk and writing a new directory structure, or \"address table,\" onto the disk. If you would like to erase or initialize a hard drive, you can use a disk utility program to reformat it. This will create an blank, empty disk for storing your files. While the disk appears to be empty, most of the files on the disk are actually untouched by the formatting process. When you format a disk, it creates a new address table, making the entire disk available for writing. However, the files are still on the disk -- they just don\'t show up since the are no longer part of the directory structure. So if you accidentally format a disk (which is pretty hard to do), you can still retrieve most of your files using an advanced disk utility such as Norton Disk Doctor or DiskWarrior.

The term \"format\" can also be used to describe the layout or style of text in a text document. When you format the layout, you choose the page margins and the line spacing. When you format the text, you choose the font, the size, and the styles, such as bold, italic, and underlined.

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Delete is computer terminology for remove or erase. You can delete text from a document of delete entire files or folders from your hard drive. When typing a document, you can remove characters behind the cursor by pressing the delete key. If you want to remove characters in front of the cursor, you can press the smaller delete key near the home and end buttons on the keyboard. You can also remove entire sections of text by selecting the text you wish to delete and pressing either delete button on the keyboard.

Files and folders can be removed from your hard drive by dragging them to the Recycle Bin (Windows) or the Trash (Macintosh) and then emptying the trash. When you delete a file, it is actually not erased, but instead the reference to the file is removed. This means deleted files are still intact until they are written over. Special utilities such as Norton Unerase can recover accidentally deleted files.

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Just like humans, computers rely a lot on memory. They need to process and store data, just like we do. However, computers store data in digital format, which means the information can always be called up exactly the way it was stored. Also, unlike our memory, the computer\'s memory doesn\'t get worse over time.

While memory can refer to any medium of data storage, it usually refers to RAM, or random access memory. When your computer boots up, it loads the operating system into its memory, or RAM. This allows your computer to access system functions, such as handling mouse clicks and keystrokes, since the event handlers are all loaded into RAM. Whenever you open a program, the interface and functions used by that program are also loaded into RAM.

RAM is a very high-speed type of memory, which makes it ideal for storing active programs and system processes. It is different than hard disk space in that RAM is made up of physical memory chips, while hard disks are magnetic disks that spin inside a hard drive. Accessing RAM is much faster than accessing the hard disk because RAM access is based on electric charges, while the hard drive needs to seek to the correct part of the disk before accessing data. However, all the information stored in RAM is erased when the computer\'s power is turned off. The hard disk, on the other hand, stores data magnetically without requiring any electrical power.

Another common type of memory is flash memory, which is typically used for small devices such as digital cameras, USB keychain drives, and portable music players like the iPod nano. This kind of memory, known as \"electrically erasable programmable read-only memory\" (EEPROM), is convenient for portable devices, since it stores information even when its power source is turned off, but is smaller and more resilient than a hard drive.

To summarize, memory is a vital part of the way computers and many electronic devices function. While memory and RAM can often be used synonymously, it is good to know about other types of memory as well. Hopefully you will be able to store the information you\'ve learned in your own memory.

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In general, \"media\" refers to various means of communication. For example, television, radio, and the newspaper are different types of media. The term can also be used as a collective noun for the press or news reporting agencies. In the computer world, \"media\" is also used as a collective noun, but refers to different types of data storage options.

Computer media can be hard drives, removable drives (such as Zip disks), CD-ROM or CD-R discs, DVDs, flash memory, USB drives, and yes, floppy disks. For example, if you want to bring your pictures from your digital camera into a photo processing store, they might ask you what kind of media your pictures are stored on. Are they on the flash memory card inside your camera or are they on a CD or USB drive? For this and many other reasons, it is helpful to have a basic understanding of what the different types of media are.

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In the computer world, a frame can be many different things. The different definitions of \"frame\" are listed below:

  1. Some Web sites use HTML frames, where the pages are broken up into various areas. Each area consists of an independent Web page. Frames allow the multiple Web pages to all show up in the same page.

  2. Graphics and desktop publishing programs also use frames. In these programs, frames are rectangular areas meant for inserting graphics and text. They allow users to place objects wherever they want to on the page.

  3. In video and animation, frames are individual pictures in a sequence of images. For example, a Flash movie you see on the Web may play 12 frames per second, creating the appearance of motion. Most video is shot at 24 or 30 frames per second, or FPS. FPS is often measured in 3D games as a way of checking how fast the graphics processor of a computer is.
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You can use your mouse to drag icons and other objects on your computer screen. Dragging icons from your desktop or an open window to another folder will move the objects to the new folder. You can also drag icons to the Trash (Mac) or the Recycle Bin (Windows) if you want to delete tehm. Some word processing programs allow you to select text and drag the selected text to another place in the document. To select the text, you may have to \"drag\" the mouse over the text you want to select.

Dragging is an important technique for using today\'s graphical user interfaces (GUIs). In fact, there are many other things you can drag besides icons. For example, you can drag the top of windows to reposition them, you can drag the scroll bar in open documents or Web pages to scroll through them, and you can drag messages to different folders in your mail program. Other programs, such as video games and image-editing programs use dragging to reposition items on the screen.

To drag an item, first move the cursor over the item you want to drag. Then click and hold down the left mouse button to \"grab\" the item. Move the mouse to position the item where you want it. Let go of the mouse button once you have moved the item to \"release\" it. This technique is known as a \"drag and drop.\"

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Stands for \"Video Random Access Memory\" and is pronounced \"V-RAM.\" System RAM is great for loading and running programs, but when you need graphics power, VRAM is where it\'s at. This is the memory used to store image data that the computer displays; it acts as a buffer between the CPU and the video card. When a picture is to be displayed on the screen, the image is first read by the processor and then written to the VRAM. The data is then converted by a RAM digital-to-analog converter (RAMDAC) into analog signals that are sent to the display. Of course, the whole process happens so quickly, you don\'t notice it. Unlike most system RAM, VRAM chips are dual-ported, which means that while the display is reading from VRAM to refresh the currently displayed image, the processor is writing a new image to the VRAM. This prevents the display from flickering between the redrawing of images.

There are many different types of VRAM. One popular kind is called Synchronous Graphics RAM (SGRAM). It is an inexpensive type of RAM that is clock-synchronized. This means data can be modified in a single operation rather than as a sequence of read, write, and update operations. This allows background, foreground, and image fills to be handled more efficiently. Another type of VRAM is Rambus Dynamic RAM (RDRAM). It is designed by Rambus and includes a proprietary Rambus bus that speeds up the transfer of data through it. Video editing pros like this chip since it is optimized for video streaming. A third type of VRAM is Window RAM (WRAM). This high-performance VRAM is dual-ported, has about 25% more bandwidth than standard VRAM, and typically costs less. Finally, there is Multibank Dynamic RAM (MDRAM). This is also high-performance VRAM, developed by MoSys, which divides the memory into divisions of 32 KB that can be accessed individually. This makes memory transfers more efficient and increases overall performance. Another advantage of MDRAM is that it can be manufactured with just the right amount of memory for a given resolution, so it is cheaper to manufacture than most other types of VRAM.

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A file is a collection of data stored in one unit, identified by a filename. It can be a document, picture, audio or video stream, data library, application, or other collection of data. The following is a brief description of each file type.

Documents include text files, such as a Word documents, RTF (Rich Text Format) documents, PDFs, Web pages, and others. Pictures include JPEGs, GIFs, BMPs, and layered image files, such as Photoshop documents (PSDs). Audio files include MP3s, AACs, WAVs, AIFs, and several others. Video files can be encoded in MPEG, MOV, WMV, or DV formats, just to name a few.

A library file is a unit of data that is referenced by a specific program or the operating system itself. These include plug-ins, components, scripts, and many others. An application is a program, or executable file. Programs such as Microsoft Internet Explorer and Apple iTunes are both applications, but are also files.

Files can be opened, saved, deleted, and moved to different folders. They can also be transferred across network connections or downloaded from the Internet. A file\'s type can be determined by viewing the file\'s icon or by reading the file extension. If the file type is associated with a specific application, double-clicking the file will typically open the file within the program.

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A font is a specific typeface of a certain size and style. For example, one font may be Arial 12 pt bold, while another font may be Times New Roman 14 pt italic. Most word processing programs have a Font menu that allows you to choose the typeface, size, and style of the text. In order to use a font, you must have it installed on your computer. Windows provides access to fonts using the Fonts control panel. The Mac OS stores fonts in a Fonts folder and includes a separate \"Font Book\" application for managing fonts.

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Ever since the Macintosh was introduced in 1984, icons have been the way we view files on computers. An icon on your computer screen represents an object or a program on your hard drive. For example, the folders you see on your desktop or in open windows are icons. The files that you see in those folders are also icons. The trash can on the Macintosh and the recycle bin on Windows are both icons as well.

Icons are a visual representation of something on your computer. For example, a blue \"e\" on your screen most likely repersents the Internet Explorer program. An icon that looks like a sheet of paper is probably a text document. By clicking and dragging icons, you can move the actual files they represent to various locations on your computer\'s hard drive. By double-clicking an application icon, you can open the program. Icons are one of the fundamental features of the graphical user interface (GUI). They make computing much more user-friendly than having to enter text commands to accomplish anything. Some Unix nerds would beg to differ, but I\'m talking about normal people here.

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This term refers to a golf equipment brand, as well as the sound made by striking your glass with a spoon at the dinner table. However, it also has a computer-related meaning. A ping is a test to see if a system on the Internet is working. \"Pinging\" a server tests and records the response time of the server. Pinging multiple computers can be helpful in finding Internet bottlenecks, so that data transfer paths can be rerouted a more efficient way. A good way to make sure you do not get disconnected from your dial-up ISP for being idle is to send a ping every 5 minutes or so. There are a number of shareware Ping programs that will do this for you.

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As if computer terms weren\'t hard enough to understand, there are three different meanings of the word \"port.\"

1. An Internet port. This is a number that indicates what kind of protocol a server on the Internet is using. For example, Web servers typically are listed on port 80. Web browsers use this port by default when accessing Web pages, but you can also specify what port you would like to use in the URL like this: http://www.excite.com:80. FTP uses port 21, e-mail uses port 25, and game servers, like a Quake server or Blizzard.net use various other ports. It is good to know what a port is, but you seldom have to specify it manually, so don\'t worry if this is new to you.

2. A hardware port. This refers to any one of the ports that are on the back of a computer where devices can be hooked up (like a keyboard, mouse, printer, digital camera, etc). Some common ports found on today\'s computers are USB, Firewire, and Ethernet.

3. The verb, \"port.\" This refers to the editing of a software program\'s code so that it can run on another platform. For example, to get Final Fantasy VII to run on a PC, programmers needed to port it to the PC from the Playstation. Popular Windows games are often ported to the Macintosh as well.

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Stands for \"Electronic Data Interchange.\" EDI is a standardized method for transferring data between different computer systems or computer networks. It is commonly used for e-commerce purposes, such as sending orders to warehouses, tracking shipments, and creating invoices.

Because may online retailers sell products that they do not physically stock, it is important to have an easy way to transfer order information to the locations where the goods are stored. EDI makes this possible. Some common EDI formats include X12 (U.S.), TRADACOMS (U.K.), and EDIFACT (International).

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Stands for \"Graphical User Interface,\" and is pronounced \"gooey.\" It refers to the graphical interface of a computer that allows users to click and drag objects with a mouse instead of entering text at a command line. Two of the most popular operating systems, Windows and the Mac OS, are GUI-based. The graphical user interface was first introduced to the public by Apple with the Macintosh in 1984. However, the idea was actually taken from an earlier user interface developed by Xerox.

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Stands for \"Network Address Translation.\" NAT translates the IP addresses of computers in a local network to a single IP address. This address is often used by the router that connects the computers to the Internet. The router can be connected to a DSL modem, cable modem, T1 line, or even a dial-up modem. When other computers on the Internet attempt to access computers within the local network, they only see the IP address of the router. This adds an extra level of security, since the router can be configured as a firewall, only allowing authorized systems to access the computers within the network.

Once a system from outside the network has been allowed to access a computer within the network, the IP address is then translated from the router\'s address to the computer\'s unique address. The address is found in a \"NAT table\" that defines the internal IP addresses of computers on the network. The NAT table also defines the global address seen by computers outside the network. Even though each computer within the local network has a specific IP address, external systems can only see one IP address when connecting to any of the computers within the network.

To simplify, network address translation makes computers outside the local area network (LAN) see only one IP address, while computers within the network can see each system\'s unique address. While this aids in network security, it also limits the number of IP addresses needed by companies and organizations. Using NAT, even large companies with thousands of computers can use a single IP address for connecting to the Internet. Now that\'s efficient.

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Stands for \"Random Access Memory,\" and is pronounced like the male sheep. RAM is made up of small memory chips that are connected to the motherboard of your computer. Every time you open a program, it gets loaded from the hard drive into the RAM. This is because reading data from the RAM is much faster than reading data from the hard drive.

Running programs from the RAM of the computer allows them to function without any lag time. The more RAM your computer has, the more data can be loaded from the hard drive into the RAM, which can help speed up your computer. In fact, adding RAM can be more beneficial to your computer\'s performance than upgrading the CPU.

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UI stands for User Interface. This is the desktop program called a graphical user interface used to work with Colleague and Benefactor.

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Article ID: 173
Last updated: 14 May, 2012
Revision: 1
Views: 9934
Comments: 0
Posted: 24 Jul, 2008 by -- .
Updated: 14 May, 2012 by -- .
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